The coordinates initially are those of Madrid (Astronomical Observatory), Spain. It was the length of the geodetic reference geographically in Spain until it was replaced with the Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. [Obtaining coordinates of any point]
5. Sidereal time - is the time elapsed since the last time a point in the sky called First Point of Aries ran over our meridian. By referring to the stars sidereal days and hours are somewhat shorter than the days and hours of sunlight.
8. Temporary time - Also called historic moment, calculated by dividing the lighting time in twelve equal hours and the time of darkness in another twelve hours equal. The temporary one-hour duration varies depending on the day of the year as well as night or daytime..
9. Canonical hour - is the time to mark a sundial oriented perpendicular meridian with its gnomon and hour lines equally spaced. The name comes from this system was formerly used in monasteries to determine the hours of the monastic offices (which should be strictly temporary.).
12. Ascension - is the projection on the equatorial plane of the ecliptic longitude. For practical reasons, measured in hours, it also indicates the sidereal time it takes the Sun late on the first point of Aries.
14. Equation of time - is the difference between the time marked by a mechanical clock and a sundial is fixed in length or, what is the same, time must be added to a sundial to show civil time . Due to the tilt of Earth's axis and the non-uniform motion in its orbit around the Sun, this amount is not zero and variable depending on time of year. It is measured as the delay of sun at 12:00:00 hours passing through the reference meridian. It is noted that this convention is opposite to that of the astronomers who measured the EdT as progress rather than a delay.
El artificio de hora legal/civil se idea para acomodar el tiempo a los ritmos humanos y tratar de someter los ciclos de la naturaleza a los intereses sociales, por encima de las características y necesidades biológicas individuales de las personas.
Hojas de cálculo para calcular los datos solares en un día o un año y sitio especificado. Están disponibles en Microsoft Excel y Open Office.